Gynaecologic 2D/3D Ultrasound Examination
A gynaecologic ultrasound examination is a non-invasive screening test to evaluate a woman’s reproductive system. Thanks to the use of ultrasonic waves generated by advanced ultrasound devices, and the use of state-of-the-art technical solutions in the software of the device, it is possible to obtain very precise images of individual structures.
A gynaecological ultrasound examination aims to assess the following:
- uterine walls – including the uterus (detection of developmental defects of the uterus), the presence of pathological structures (myoma/adenomyosis lesions, tumours);
- endometrium – its condition and the presence of endometrial polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, as well as assessment of the endometrial function (for hormone disorders, cycle monitoring)
- ovaries – assessment of the structure (presence of tumours, cysts) and ovarian function (follicular apparatus, presence of ovarian follicle), and evaluation of ovarian stimulation for IVF needs
- fallopian tubes – proper functioning fallopian tubes cannot be examined by the ultrasound test, but diagnostics of their pathology is possible, such as the oviduct hydrocephalus, ectopic pregnancy, and ovarian cysts
- The Douglas cavity – exclusion/confirmation of the presence of fluid in the cavity, as well as pathologies (tumours, endometriosis)
The gynaecologic ultrasound is most often performed with a transvaginal probe (in sexually active patients), while in other cases it may be performed using an abdominal or rectal probe.
The use of 3D ultrasound technology has made it possible to circumvent many of the limitations of 2D projection. 3D technology allows you to save a very large series of sequential ultrasound images into a volumetric file that can be archived and processed later. The transvaginal 3D ultrasound allows simultaneous visualisation of a given organ in three perpendicular planes for accurate measurements of dimensions and volumes, while simultaneously viewing the external contours of the examined structure. The saved volumetric image can be rotated and viewed in all planes. In reproductive medicine, 3D ultrasonography has many potential applications, including assessment of congenital and acquired uterine defects, ovarian patency, ovarian observation and their response to ovulation stimulation, as well as the evaluation of endometrial receptivity. In addition, the three-dimensional Power Doppler angiography allows you to assess the flow volume in the ovary and endometrium.
Indications for ultrasound examination:
- Periodic assessment of the reproductive system (prophylactically every 2 years)
- Diagnostics of developmental disorders of the reproductive system
- Diagnostics of uterine pathology, appendages
- Cancer diagnostics
- Early pregnancy diagnostics
- Diagnostics of gynaecological endocrinological disorders